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Clinical, biomechanical and pathological correlation in Orthopaedic Medicine

Physicians practicing Orthopaedic Medicine must be able to utilize different clinical findings for identification of the pathological processes.

Restriction of the ROM, pain, changes in the texture of the structures, autonomic manifestations ( sweating, temperature, color changes, etc) will indicate the involvement of different structures in the pathological process. All of these processes indicate disruption of Bio-tensegrity.

I will present several examples:


Entrapment of the sciatic nerve may occur at various areas along its course and may be difficult to differentiate from a herniated disc.Detailed history and examination may give a clue  to the source of the problem.In most cases, sciatica develops at the area of pelvic musculo-tendinous junction.
Piriformis syndrome is an example of the above.
The sciatic nerve may have a high division and may pass through the Piriformis muscle.
In such cases compression of the nerve by surrounding musculature may give rise to neuropathy.
The following muscles can contribute to the symptoms of “Sciatica”
Attachments:Sacrum & greater trochanter.Function: lateral rotation.Innervation : L5-S1S2
Quadratus femoris.Attachments: Ischial tuberosity & intertrochanteric crest
Function: lateral rotation
Innervation:L4-L5-sacral plexus
Gemelli inferior.
Attachments: Ischial tuberosity &
Obturator interns tendon.Function:lateral rotation.Innervation:L4-L5
Gemelli superior.
Attachments: Ischium spine & Obturator interns tendon
Function: lateral  rotation
Obturator internus.
Attachments: Ischiopubic ramus & Greater trochanter.Function: Lateral rotation
Inneravation: L5-S1-S2
All of the above muscles go into contractual state as the result of ligamental instability of the pelvic ligaments: the most important include: sacro-iliac , sacro-tuberous, ilio-lumbar  ligaments, as well as the posterior ligamentous and tendinous structures of the hip.
Clinical symptoms of muscular involvement/ compensation will be pain, restricted mobility and external rotation of the leg.
Ligamental relaxation develop as the result of various etiologies including: trauma, overuse, metabolic /infectious processes resulting in muscle contractures. (Clinical manifestation of the ligamental laxity and examination pearls described in details in G.Hackett Prolotherapy text).
This lead to compression of the neighboring  neuro-vascular structures by the muscles and tendons: initially only capillary network, leading to chronic ischemia of the corresponding nerves and later to compression of the nerves with symptoms of neuropathy.
Fascial distortion leads to fascial shifts and mechanical injury of the cutaneous nerves and neurogenic inflammation.Contractures of surrounding musculature are secondary to ligamental laxity of the joint leading to a decrease in range of motion of the corresponding joints, which are “aiding” in its stability.
The major concept of Prolotherapy and Orthopaedic medicine is stabilization of the joints via restoration of the ligaments. This will lead to restoration of muscle, blood flow, & nerve decompression thereby restoring its function.In the case of sciatica the targets of Prolotherapy will be Ilio-lumbar, sacroiliac, sacro-tuberous, sacro-ischial ligaments and posterior hip capsule.
Osteopathic manipulative therapy may facilitate normal anatomical realignment .
Peri-neural subcutaneous injection of the D5W (Neuroprolo) will help to reduce neurogenic inflammation and restore fascial distortion.Acupuncture will also assist in regulation of the viscera-somatic aspects of ligamental laxity.Similar principle will be applicable in the other anatomical areas:
Lateral elbow pain:
Laxity of the annular radial ligament and resulting increase in superior translation of the radius  will lead to compensatory spasms and contractures of the proximal forearm muscle; the most important-supinator.
These will lead to compression of the posterior interosseous nerve at the Arcade of Frohse.
Thoracic outlet syndrome in some cases is a manifestation of ligamental laxity. It occurs as a result of abnormal  muscle tone, postural changes, and compression of the neurovascular structures.
These examples indicates the importance of the  meticulous clinical examination and imaging studies for confirmation of the possible pathological processes.
Orthopaedic medicine is a life long affair. Please, be persistent and patient.

Jon Trister MD