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Pre-Stress and connective tissue.By Jon Trister MD

Connective tissue is an important structural component of the body.

Bones, cartilages, capsules of the joints, ligaments connecting bones, tendons and muscles, fascia, appendages of the skin, tunica mucosa and tunica serosa,  meninges, cell membrane, and organelles – are all connective tissues and are present in various forms in ALL tissues composing organs and body as a whole.

Connective tissue made and maintain form* of the body and organs composing it by connecting cells, tissues and organs into a specific and proper architectural arrangement.

These arrangements determine and control functions of the body and its organs, tissues and individual cells.

These architectural arrangements called Biotensegrity (Tensegrity).

Tensegrity is a structural system in which tension is continuously transmitted across all its members.

Tensegrity structures are mechanically stable because of the way the entire structure distributes and balances mechanical stress.

Tensegrity structures stabilize themselves through a phenomenon known as pre-stress.

This type of structure was constructed by the sculptor Kenneth Snelson.

Even before one of these structures is subjected to an external force, all the structural members are already in tension or compression-that is they are prestressed.

Biotensegrity is a structural arrangement of the biological systems.

It is a self-regulating process utilizing a specific pattern of interactions between members (organs, tissues, structures etc) of the biological system (organism)  to maintain life.

Mechanotransduction, Biochemical, Hormonal Neural, Humoral, Electromagnetic fields interactions, Gravitational force, Quantum entanglements and other known and unknown yet factors are the major mechanisms responsible for cell membrane regulation and transmission of information to and from the nucleus. These processes modulate gene expression and induce biochemical, neuro-humoral, neuro-endocrine, emotional, electromagnetic  and other possible responses

Resistance and compliance are determinants of the mechanical properties of the connective tissue. Within tissues and organs, connective tissue generates mechanical forces that maintain the architectural arrangement and structural form of the body. This predetermined stress called Pre-stress.

The Connective Tissue control function of the entire body (tissues, organs, cells).

Mechanical properties of the connective tissue change with pathogenic factors. As we become older connective tissue insufficiency affects more and more systems and organs. As a result , Pre-stress is no longer the same.

As we get older various factors are taking place and influence these changes:

Various Infections ;

Infection-induced autoimmune processes;

Family-clusters induced autoimmune processes;

Genetic conditions;

Various forms of acute and chronic injuries;

Metabolically induced disorders;

Nutritionally induced disorders;

Allergies and intolerance.

When connective tissue became unable to maintain form-change of functions of various organs and tissues are follow. This affects respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, neurologic, musculoskeletal and endocrine and immune systems.

Examples:Skin: Mechanical properties of the skin are changed with time. Altered pre-stress changes one of the first defenses of the immune system-physical barriers-epidermal and dermal layers of the skin. Reduced functional capacity and increased susceptibility of the skin with the development of dermatoses such as dry skin, itching, ulcers, dyspigmentation ,  wrinkles, fungal infections, as well as benign and malignant tumors are the most common skin conditions in aged population. In turn altered appearance, dry skin, chronic wounds, and other conditions decrease general health and reduce the likelihood for healthy and active aging.

*Form” and “shape” define objects situated in space. The basic difference, though, between “shape” and “form” is that “form” is in 3D while “shape” is plain 2D.